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泰国曼谷鸟翼桥设计 l Shma

shma 2022-03-08
原创
  • 项目名称:
    鸟翼桥
  • 项目地点:
    泰国曼谷
  • 项目规模:
    7,354 sq.m
  • 设计公司:
  • 施工单位:
    C&S Engineering
  • 委托方:
    Queen Sirikit公园基金会
  • 建成时间:
    2016
  • 摄影师:
    Wison Tungthunya

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© Wison Tungthunya


位于泰国曼谷城市北部的鸟翼桥(Bird Wave Bridge)是一座长50米的人行天桥,主要目的是从屋里环境上连接Rotfai公园和Queen Sirikit公园,同时也将公共景观建造和对城市公园的认知连接在一起。曼谷的人均公共绿地面积仅约3平方米,而世界卫生组织(WHO)建议的城市人均绿地面积至少为9平方米,况且曼谷的人均3平方米已经是包含了城市公共绿地和道路隔离带。显然,在城市的生物多样性增加和利用方面,严重缺少绿地空间。

The Bird Wave Bridge, a 50 metre long pedestrian bridge crossing over small watercourse from Rotfai Park to H.M. Queen Sirikit Park at the Northern part of Bangkok aims to bridge not only the physical gaps but also the public projects’ complicated process and general perception of urban parks.The public green area in Bangkok is only about 3 m2 per person as opposed to minimum 9m2 per person as suggested by The World Health Organization (WHO) that every city should have. The 3 m2 per person figure already compiled every green area possible from large parks to planted road median. Obviously not only the city lacks green space in terms of area but also the sizeable ones where greater capacity enables broader  use and increase of urban biodiversity.


© Wison Tungthunya


在Chatuchak地区内的Rot Fai 公园、H.M. Queen Sirikit 公园、Jatujak 公园三个公园彼此相邻。尽管Queen 公园隶属于H.M. Queen Sirikit 公园基金会,但这三个公园都均受曼谷市政府(BMA)公共公园部门的管制。三个公园分别于2002年,1992年和1980年正式向公众开放,其总面积为116公顷,这使他们成为了曼谷区内最大的公园,为2019年,在Queen公园西部建设的交通运输枢纽带来无限的发展前景。未来的城市发展将使该地区人口密度更高,对休闲绿地的需求也越来越大。

Within Chatuchak district, 3 main public parks are situated next to each other. The Rotfai Park, The H.M. Queen Sirikit Park (widely referred to as the Queen Park) and The Jatujak Park (nick name JJ Park). All the parks are under care of Public Parks Department of Bangkok Metropolitan Authority (BMA) even though the Queen Park is owned by H.M. Queen Sirikit Park Foundation. They were opened to public in 2002, 1992 and 1980 respectively. The area of 3 parks combined is 116 Hectare which will make it the biggest public park in Bangkok. Its full potential will greatly contribute to the city as Chatuchak District is set to become Bangkok’s new rail transport hub when Bangsue Grand Station opens in 2019 on the West of the Queen Park. The future urban development will see the district with more density and more need of recreation green space.


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© shma


然而,由于土地所有权的问题,公园相关部门之间的协调变得异常复杂和缓慢,加上每个公园的概念和计划的差异以及使用者和公众对现有公园的使用和树木砍伐问题等,项目被搁置。目前,JJ公园拥有适合进行各种休闲活动的大草坪,并且毗邻Mass交通枢纽和地铁站,为公园提供了人流。原本属于国家铁道管理局高尔夫球场的Rotfai公园,如今也因蜿蜒迷人的自行车道而受到市民的喜爱。

However, BMA’s master plan to combine the 3 parks since 2008 has not been realized due to difference in land ownership resulting in the complicated inter-authority coordination, the difference in each of the parks’ concepts and programs and public concerns over the impact on existing use and cutting of trees. Users of road that cuts through these parks were also against the plan.

Currently, JJ Park, with its properly mowed open lawn suitable for leisurely activities and its location next to Mass Rail Transit as well as Underground stations, is well used throughout the week while Rotfai Park, formerly a State Railways Authority of Thailand’s golf course, is most popular during weekend for its biking route through photogenic rolling mounds.


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© Wison Tungthunya


Queen公园的游客数量在三个公园中最少,原因来自于公园的交通可达性的不足,大部分来访者主要是利用自驾车。因为JJ公园和周边道路,Queen公园被迫与公共交通系统分割,与Rotfai公园也因中间河道而割裂。与Rotfai公园仅用一座位于Queen公园一角的临时钢桥链接。

与游客人数不同,Queen公园拥有曼谷城市内种类最为丰富的植物群,收集和展示着整个泰国的本地植物群。根据泰国鸟类保护协会的调查,公园的生物多样性也吸引了大量的鸟类。Queen公园将位于公园东北部临近Rotfai公园边界的区域定位“鸟类保护区”,使区域内植被自然生长,堆积在一旁的落叶和树枝为昆虫提供食物和庇护所。枯死的树枝被放在护城河的浅水中,为海龟,蜥蜴和鸟类提供栖息地。尽管受到观鸟者的喜爱,但仍有人质疑此区域的卫生状况,认为这里并不整洁干净。


The Queen Park has the least numbers of visitors due to its less accessibility, mainly only by private transportation. It is separated from mass transit system by JJ Park and a road, and from Rotfai Park by the drainage moat. The only connection to Rotfai park was by a 1 temporary steel bridge from one corner of the Queen Park.

In contrary to numbers of visitors, Queen Park has the most variety of plant species among all Bangkok’s public parks as its main purpose is to collect and exhibit native vegetation from throughout Thailand. Its biodiversity also attracts most variety of birds as surveyed by The Bird Conservation Society of Thailand. The park dedicated the  northeastern portion  next to its boundary to Rotfai Park to be ‘Bird Sanctuary’ where vegetation are allowed to naturally grow, fallen leaves and branches are stacked to provide food and shelter for insects and dead trees are left in the moat’s shallow water for the turtles, lizards and birds to perch. Although well known among bird watchers, the area was considered untidy or dirty by some.


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© Wison Tungthunya

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© shma


景观设计师于2014年向Queen公园董事会提出在Queen公园南端建设“鸟翼桥”的方案,作为连个三个公园的“实验性”项目,而不需要等到公园最后总体规划方案罗定。经过2年的审批流程,公园管理处批复了60,000美元的预算,而H.M.董事会资助了公园的植被预算。“鸟翼桥”于2016年8月正式向公众开放。

It is in the south end of the Bird Sanctuary that “The Bird Wave Bridge” was proposed by the landscape architect to the director board of the Queen Park in 2014 as the ‘trial’ connection to enable real use if the 3 parks are to be joined without having to wait for the realization of the whole masterplan. After 2 years of approval process, the 60,000 USD budget for the bridge was granted by Public Parks Department and the softscape budget was funded by H.M. Queen Sirikit Park Foundation. The bridge was opened to public in August 2016.


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© shma


羽翼桥位于Queen公园中轴线的北端,横穿分割两个公园的小河道,蜿蜒穿越现有的树林区域,另一端落于地势低2m的Rotfai公园中。鸟翼桥波浪起伏的桥面也是为了缓和地势的高度差而设计的,同时也是保存了Queen公园内原有桥梁的形状。桥梁中部横跨鸟类保护区,创造了一处以树冠为屋顶的户外空间。由半实心的木栏围合出了一个隐秘的观鸟区。

“ 鸟翼桥”之名来自于自身形状和所处环境,并充分展示了鸟类保护区的功能和重要性。此外,也反应出生物多样性与城市环境共存的另一种可能性。

The bridge’s location is at the North end of central axis from the Queen Park and crossing over small watercourses, curving away from existing mature trees and landing in Rotfai Park at 2 m. lower elevation. The wave elevation of the bridge was employed to mitigate this level difference as well as paying homage to the traditional curved bridges in the Queen Park. The middle section of the bridge where it landed on a dike is curved out towards the Bird Sanctuary to create a room with tree crowns as roof, the semi-solid timber railing was raised around this room to form a blind with the integration of horizontal opening and wooden counter for birding activity.

The name ‘Bird Wave’ tributes to its appearance as well as the surroundings in which it is situated, giving importance to the uses and function of the Bird Sanctuary and gently introducing the different kind of public green space where biodiversity can coexist with urban environment.


© Wison Tungthunya


鸟翼桥主要由3种材料制成;基础和支柱由钢筋混凝土,黑色喷漆钢用在了桥面结构上,地板和扶手使用了风化木材。因建设过程会影响周边环境,在施工过程与与泰国鸟类保护协会进行和合作,在周围重新设计增加了适合小动物适合栖息的地点。例如,在沿河缓坡处设计了适合栖息和觅食的空间,并种植了多种开花灌木和树木,保护斜坡同时吸引昆虫。最后,项目仅剩筹资完善指示牌了。

尽管已经达到连接两个公园并吸引更多访客目的,但是只有时间才能证明这种物理上连接的形式是否是一次成功的尝试,是否在未来复杂的公共项目中借鉴。


The bridge is primarily constructed with 3 materials; reinforced concrete for the footing and column, black painted steel for above ground structure and weathered timber for flooring and railing. The surrounding landscape which was affected by construction was re designed in consultation with The Bird Conservation Society of Thailand to increase suitable living condition for small animals, banks were gently sloped into the water to provide feeding and refuging environment and various flowering shrubs and trees were planted to protect slope and attract insects. The next step to fully complete the project is fund raising to provide interpretive signage.

Even though the bridge is achieving its purpose to connect 2 parks and attract more users, but only time will tell whether or not its humble goals to bring to public’s attention the other possible forms of public parks and to convey the idea of direct solution approach to the complicated public projects can be reached.


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© Wison Tungthunya

© shma



Name of Project: Bridging the Gaps

Design Director – Namchai Saensupha

Landscape Architect – Charnchai Chitpatanapaibul 

Architect:  Crown Property Bureau

Client & Developer :  H.M. Queen Sirikit Park Foundation (Public Parks Department)

M&E :  Crown Property Bureau

C&S Engineering: Crown Property Bureau

Project Type :  Park

Site Area :  7,354 sq.m.

Completion Year :  2016

Location :  Between Queen Sirikit Park and Rot fai Park,Bangkok Thailand

Photograph Credit: Mr. Wison Tungthunya



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